POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS)
POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME commonly known as PCOS is basically female reproductive disease. When most of the women reaches to their child-bearing stage and faces difficulty in conception then they eventually knows that they are suffering from PCOS. It is really a complex female health issue and associated by endocrine disorder in women. Women who have PCOS have;
- imbalance of female sex hormones.
- changes in menstrual cycle (missed, irregular, or even very heavy periods).
- cysts in the ovaries.
- trouble in getting pregnant.
- Obesity and weight gain.
- other health issues.
These all situations are due to;
- Elevated levels of Androgens known as male hormones in females.
- Small fluid filled sacs or many multiple cysts in the ovaries. But they are harmless.
- Menstrual cycle of females.
HOW MANY WOMEN FACING PCOS?
Researchers of all over the world says that every 10 out of 1 female has PCOS. In United States of America study reveals that almost 5 million female may be affected to PCOS.
POSSIBLE CAUSES OF PCOS:
There are so many causes linked with PCOS some times at the reproductive age of women changes of hormone levels are noticed and due to these changes it make very harder for the female ovaries to release fully mature or grown eggs. Ovulation occurs when there may be release of at least one or more eggs from the ovaries during woman’s menstrual cycle. But hormones affect this process of ovulation due to;
- High levels of Androgen, a male hormone in women.
- Female hormones Estrogen and progesterone that helps in process of releasing the eggs.
- Insulin is also a factor. It controls the blood sugar in the body.
In normal and healthy women who have regular periods cycle release their eggs about 2 weeks after the start of periods cycle. But in women with PCOS, eggs are not fully grown or mature so they are not released and still stay in the ovaries with small fluids around them. This situation when no egg released from either ovary is attributed to INFERTILITY.
Almost all the causes of PCOS are unknown but study revealed that inheritance and genetics also play an important role. Other possible causes are ;
- Abnormal fetal development.
- Low grade inflammation.
- Poor life style.
- Too much eating habits.
- Eating junk and processed foods.
- No exercise.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PCOS:
There are many signs and symptoms of PCOS but it varies in every woman. Some are faces only few of them while some reported almost all of them. These may be;
- Periods problem means irregular cycle.
- Absent of menstrual cycle.
- Anovulatory cycle.
- Secondary Amenorrhea.
- Abnormal bleeding some times in the mid cycle.
- Long periods cycle.
- Very low flow of bleeding but sometimes excessive and heavy menstrual bleeding.
- Excessive facial hairs known as Hirsutism.
- Facial acne , oily skin.
- Thining of hairs and dandruff.
- Darkening of some parts of skins known as Acanthosis nigricans. Such as forehead, armpits, back of neck, or upper or sides lips portion.
- Mood swings.
- Excessive weight gain or obesity.
HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH PCOS:
There are many health related risks are linked with PCOS some are as follows;
- Irregularities in menstrual cycle.
- Recurrent miscarriages.
- Risk of Breast and Endometrial cancer.
- Heart cardiovascular disease.
- High cholesterol level.
- High blood pressure.
- Gestational diabetes.
- Pelvic pain.
- Depression and anxiety.
- Sleep apnea.
- Affect on breast size.
EXAMS AND TEST FOR PCOS:
Various exams and tests are performed by your health care practitioner depends on the symptoms of your disease. But some common test that are compulsory for PCOS patients to determine the level of problem. Some are;
- Pelvic examination shows
- swollen ovaries
- swollen clitoris
- multiple cysts
- Physical examination of your body weight , obesity, facial hairs, acne, baldness and oily skin. Doctors must check Body mass index (BMI) and determine your obesity level.
- Hormones test includes;
- Estrogen level
- FSH level
- LH level
- Testosterone level
- Progesterone level
- Other blood tests includes;
- Lipid profile
- Prolactin level
- Thyroid functions tests
- Fasting glucose level in blood
- Imaging tests includes;
- Vaginal scan (sonograms)
- Pelvic laparoscopy
- Endometrial Biopsy
After the results of all the examination taken and tests performed the doctors tell the patients either they have mild PCOS or there may be a serious problem. So testing is the best way to find out all odds.
TREATMENT FOR PCOS:
Every doctor said that there is no cure for PCOS but by giving medical assistance or advises it would be managed. Some treatments of PCOS are;
Change in lifestyle:
Lifestyle modification plays a vital role in the management of PCOS. Most of the female with PCOS are overweight or obese which can cause a lot of health issues. So we can change the life style patterns through;
- Healthy eating by consume good fats like coconut oil and extra virgin olive oil etc.
- Avoid factory meat and animal products because it leads towards infertility.
- Avoid using refined sugar, flour and grains.
- Cutting down soy from your diet.
- Avoid artificial sweeteners and food preservatives.
- Adding more fruits and green vegetables in diet plan.
- Adding more whole grain products.
- Avoid drugs, smoking and alcohol.
- Regular exercise.
- Reduce weight it will help you to get pregnant.
- Maintain your body BMI. Check your BMI online through calculator.
Birth control medicines:
Birth control pills are given to the patients of PCOS to;
- Regulate the monthly cycle.
- Reduces the levels of male hormones.
- Aid to decreases the other problems like acne or baldness etc.
- To maintain the progestrone levels.
Females with PCOS are facing very much difficulty in conception. Due to lack of ovulation eggs are not mature enough to release that’s why women are facing difficulty to become pregnant. So following medicines are given to control all the possible affects of disease.
- Clomiphene like clomid or latrazol to stimulate ovulation.
- Metformin like glucophage to control blood sugar, prevent Type 2 diabetes and also helps in lose weight.
- Other options are IVF and IUI.
- Ovarian drilling.
POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS WITH PCOS:
Females with PCOS are more likely to develop the symptoms of
- Endometrial cancer
- Breast cancer
ARE WOMEN GET PREGNANT WITH PCOS:
After taking regular treatment many women are able to get pregnant but there are certain problems are;
- Facing gestational diabetes during pregnancy.
- Have twins or triplets with low survival rate.
- Increased risk of miscarriage or recurrent miscarriage.
- Etopic pregnancy.
- High blood pressure during pregnancy.
- Premature delivery.
READ MORE ABOUT: